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Introduction


Here is the tutorial on YouTube.

Here is a .pdf version.


This is for those of you who are looking at the interface going, "Now what?"  This covers how to convert existing shaders and how to set up lighting for your render. 

This is a text version that, while different from what I'm saying in the video word by word, contains the same information. 

---

To use this you need DAZ Studio 4.8 Pro or later.

Part 1: The Environment and Camera Settings


Before we get started, we need to check the environment, camera and render settings.

The Render Settings tab has an Editor and an Advanced section.  Advanced is where you check or uncheck your CPU and graphics cards.  I render with just my cards most of the time, and if you have good cards with lots of CUDA cores (I'm rendering with two Nvidia GTX 980's), the CPU will only speed things up a little.  Iray cannot render with non-Nvidia graphics cards (probably because Iray was created by Nvidia).  I'm working with the Photoreal option.

The Editor tab has several other settings.  By default Iray will be set to go to 5000 samples in the Progressive settings, and that's a good starter setup, though it will not be enough to finish a large scene without graininess.  Iray is an unbiased engine, which in practical terms means a "bad" render is grainy, where in a biased renderer like 3Delight a "bad" render is blurry.

The Editor tab also contains the Environment settings.  This is where you can set up your environment map if you have an .hdr or .tiff you would like to use for global lighting.  If so, put it into the Environment Map channel.  Make sure the top dropdown is set to "Dome and Scene" and "finite sphere" or "finite cube" if using an environment map.  Set Visualize Finite Dome to "off."  The purpose of this is so that you can see what size of dome Iray is using to light; it will create an unwanted green dome in your scene if left on.  There is a different "Draw Dome" button for showing the HDR as a backdrop.

If you do not have an environment map, but would still like your scene to have a "sun" and a lighting environment, scroll down to the date and time settings.  Here you can set the lighting to mimic a certain time of year at a certain latitude and longitude by entering those values.  Alternately, you can choose an "SS Sun Node" and set it to be an object in your scene (including a Null, if you wish) and set the sun settings around that.  I've gotten good results using a camera as a sun node.

And finally, we need to turn off the headlamp so we can use real lighting.  You can find this in your camera settings.  You can't control the settings of the Front, Back, Perspective, etc. cameras, meaning their headlamps can't be turned off, so you need to have a Default Camera or create a camera in your scene.  You can set up the scene to always generate a Default Camera in Edit--Preferences and the Scene tab of that dialog.

When you have a camera, select it in the Scene tab and go to the Parameters tab to look at its settings.  There is now a new option called Headlamp.  Set it from Auto to Off.  If your scene has an unwanted direct bright light no matter what you do, it may be from the headlamp.  If your scene is too dark now, Ctrl+L turns off the lighting sim in preview and should allow you to see clearly.

Part 2: Loading Items And Converting Shaders


You set up and compose a scene in DAZ Studio for Iray exactly as you would for 3Delight as far as the poses and cameras are concerned.  Before we get to rendering, though, we need to convert all of the shaders to Iray shaders in order to take advantage of their great options.  You can render in Iray without Iray shaders, but it will always look better if you convert them, especially with anything close up.

When you've set up your scene's objects, right-click in the 3d window and choose "Select All."  There may be some lag as you go to the Surfaces tab.  Right-click in Surfaces and choose Expand All.  Click on the very first item in the tab.  Then hold down shift, scroll to the bottom, and shift-click on the bottom entry.  Now everything is selected.

Leaving that selected, go to your Product Library and Shader Presets/Iray Uber Defaults.  There is a preset here called !Iray Uber Base.  Double-click on it.  This isn't really a shader itself, it just converts all selected shaders to Iray.

If you have G2F and/or G2M in your scene, DAZ has also provided material presets for them.  These are located in People/Genesis 2 (male or female)/Materials/Iray.  If you have a skin set up to use, ctrl+click on the Iray Optimized Preset and choose "ignore" in the dialog that pops up to apply these shaders without changing your textures.

If you're using a texture not made specifically with Iray in mind, which most of us will be, you may need to add the SSS map to the translucency weight and color channels in Default Templates 1, 2 and 3.  If there is no SSS map, use the spec map.  If there is no spec map, turn the translucency value down much lower, say to 0.1 or so.  If using dark skin, you may want to change the translucency and SSS values to something less orange and more blue.  Blue, Green, etc. skins will need more tweaking to get something "natural" for them, and scales should have translucency and SSS turned off for the most part.

This is a subject that needs a lot more documentation, which I will do as time passes and I get more familiar with Iray and its shaders.  Meanwhile, I've also done this post on Iray shaders and what they do.

Part 3: Lighting Your Scene With Photometric And Mesh Lights


Iray is a physically based renderer.  This means that it calculates the behavior of light in a way as close to reality as possible.  Unlike 3Delight, lights can have the temperature and luminosity values that they would have in the real world; lights diminish in strength with distance, and they scatter and fill the scene with light.  Because of this behavior, Iray renders faster with more lights in the scene, not less.  Never hesitate to add more lights.

There are three ways that Iray lights a scene:

1. The Environment.  We covered this in Part 1.  Using the environment alone can produce decent lights for many types of scenes, especially when what you want is "outside in a field" or "on a city street somewhere" and not "inside this specific space ship with its emergency lights on."  Or you can use the environment to add a sky dome or backdrop and turn its light to a low value, then add other lights in the scene to represent other light sources such as street lights, flashlights, etc.

2. Mesh lights.  A mesh light is any object in your scene that has the Iray shader and has its emission set to a color other than black in the Emission channel in the Surfaces tab.  The Emission color only really affects light color if the temperature (in K, or Kelvin) is around 5000-6000.  Temperatures below 4500 will be more orange or red; temperatures above 6500 will trend increasingly toward blue.  There is good documentation of color temperatures for light online

Setting light to "two sided" is useful for literal skydomes, lighting with a primitive plane, or other things where you want it to ignore the direction of normals when lighting.

Luminance controls how powerful the light is.  It defaults to a value of 1500 and luminance units of cd/m squared, which is not really bright enough to light anything.  One of the units available is lumens, a unit of luminous flux that there are some charted values for here.  The important thing to remember is, if it's not bright enough, add a zero - you will often need in the hundred thousands at the default tone mapping settings.  You may need millions of lumens if you're using a literal skydome, because you are simulating something very bright but very far away.

In general, always use an environment map rather than a mesh skydome.  Adding a literal skydome adds large textures, which will slow Iray down, so the environment map is much faster even if you just take the map straight from the skydome and add it to the environment map channel.  This can be a very good method with sets like BWC Skies and the FM_EasyEnvironments sets (you will have to pick one of the directional textures FlipMode includes with the set, but if you set it to Finite Box w/Ground it still works well for lighting).

Mesh lights are particularly good for converting objects in the scene into emissive lights when they are literal light bulbs, light panels on machines, or magical objects that you want to glow.  Setting an object's lumens high enough to really cast light on the scene will wipe out any detail visible on the object, so for that I recommend settings its luminosity very low (under 1000 lumens) and using a point light at its location.  Stonemason sets always have separate materials for light bulb type surfaces, so they're great for practicing with this.

3.  Photometric lights.  You can add spot and point lights using the "Create" option at the top of your DAZ Studio interface.  These now have both 3Delight and photometric characteristics, so just load a regular spot or point.  These are great for englobing a character, adding a rim light to pick them out from the background, or highlighting objects that you want to glow but don't want to be emitters.  As with mesh lights, they are controlled with the luminance values, not with the intensity slider.  The same numbers apply.

My experience is that you generally want to use your environment map for fill, mesh lights for realism on specific objects that should be lights, and photometrics as "key" and "rim" lights.

4.  Rendering


You've checked your camera and environment settings, you've got objects in your scene with their shaders converted, and you've put in your lights!  Now it's time to hit Ctrl+R and see what happens.

Iray will spend the most render time at 0% and the values between 90 and 100%.  I'm not sure exactly why this is, but it probably has something to do with the amount of small details and refinement added to the progressive render at those higher numbers.  Regardless, don't worry, a long time at 0% doesn't mean the render will necessarily take as long as you might think.

If your render gets to 100% but doesn't look "finished" to you, it may be time to add more iterations and a tighter convergence.  In the Progressive settings on the Render/Editor tab, you can set the Max Samples much higher, and the Max Time as well (be sure to change both or it will quit when it gets to the lowest of the two).  Setting the Rendering Converged Ratio to 98% also produces a less grainy render that takes longer. You can set your machine to basically keep rendering forever, then watch the progressive render and cancel it when it looks as good as you want, or good enough that you would rather just run a blur filter over it in PhotoShop or the GIMP. 

5. A Note On The ISO and Aperture Settings


Because Iray is physically based, lighting for it is not unlike lighting for photography.  Accordingly, the render settings Editor/Tone Mapping tab lets you set a number of photographic settings. 

The most relevant currently are Exposure Value, Shutter Speed, and Film ISO, also known as the Three Pillars of PhotographyI've done a different tutorial that covers that topic in more detail.

It's usually a good idea to render to a new window and not direct to file when working with Iray, so that hitting cancel still leaves you with a render you can save.
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Add a Comment:
 
:iconlimc68:
Limc68 Featured By Owner Dec 20, 2016
Thank you very much. This has already helped me out in the first few lines. :)
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Dec 20, 2016  Professional Digital Artist
Very welcome, glad it helped. :)
Reply
:iconlippia:
LippiA Featured By Owner Jul 24, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Yesterday, I hated Iray - Today, I love it!!
Thanks a lot! :)
Reply
:iconkamijavi:
kamijavi Featured By Owner Jul 23, 2016
Wow nice thanks i know why i can't get point and spots to work on iray
Reply
:icontracywong:
TracyWong Featured By Owner May 6, 2016  Professional Digital Artist
I love your tutorials. You're a very generous soul for spending so much time and energy toward teaching the community. Thank you so much or your work in helping the 3d art community! :hug:
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner May 6, 2016  Professional Digital Artist
Aw, thank you, I really appreciate that! :hugs:
Reply
:iconsharrukin-of-akkad:
Sharrukin-of-Akkad Featured By Owner Apr 18, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
Excellent! I've been struggling with one of my first Iray renders for a few days now, and a few bits of this tutorial gave me just what I needed to improve it drastically. Many thanks!
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Apr 18, 2016  Professional Digital Artist
I'm glad it helped! :)
Reply
:iconlyrnetu:
Lyrnetu Featured By Owner Apr 7, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Fantastic. Every time I read this I learn a little bit more and things seem a little less overwhelming  ^.^
Reply
:icongordon228:
Gordon228 Featured By Owner Edited Jan 30, 2016
How do you make a lampshade work with the iray emissive light? i can't figure it out i can get something but not what i know to be true for lampshades that are of the cloth and plastic kind like the new shades of today.

Also the best examples to use are the lights from Light the Way for the lamp shades.


Edit: I think i got it via converting the base shade in to the default iray shader/map the playing around with the translucency weight and color wile having base color effect set to scatter & transmit. if you have a better way then i am all ears.
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Jan 31, 2016  Professional Digital Artist
That sounds about right.  You might also turn Thin Walled to "off" and add some SSS for the lampshade to transmit more light through it.
Reply
:icongordon228:
Gordon228 Featured By Owner Feb 3, 2016
i am still new to all this but i think i got a handle on it and thanks for the amazing tutorial.
Reply
:iconfractal2cry:
fractal2cry Featured By Owner Dec 30, 2015
i finally dove in to daz 4.8 ty for tutorial!
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Dec 30, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
:)
Reply
:iconirulan33:
irulan33 Featured By Owner Sep 16, 2015  Hobbyist
I'm having huge issues with memory management.  I've got a 6core processor w/ 16 gb of ram and I try to do all the iray rendering on my graphics cards.  I've got two Titan Z's (Not SLI'd).  If I get 4 or more hi res figures in a scene with set and lights (especially hdr's) then I might be getting to 5 or 6 gig or ram.  The problem is when I try to render, the graphics card memory fills up (6 gb) then appears to dump the whole scene back onto the CPU memory.  So it appears that the CPU memory is holding the same scene twice.  Then the memory gets to crush depth. 

Before I go drop a grand on a new motherboard with 64 gig of ram I'd like to see if you have any suggestions.

Thanks again
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Sep 16, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
Getting a new motherboard won't help.  It's not using that RAM for the actual rendering.  It's more that the second Titan Z isn't doing anything for you because it can only load the scene onto one graphics card.  I felt very stupid that I shelled out for a second GTX 980 when I learned this one. :p
Reply
:iconskolarnow:
SkolarNow Featured By Owner Nov 2, 2015
Well a Titan Z is equiped with 12 Gb ram devided into 2 sets of 6 Gb, which is the problem (my 980TI has only 6 Gb to start with). So I suggest another swap.....sell one Titan Z and buy a Titan X instead. That has 12 Gb of RAM, if a scene is under 6 Gb you should be able to render it on all three processors (2x Titan Z, wich has 2 cores anyway, and 1 x Titan X) and if a scene takes more then 6 Gb well stop the Titan Z in his (or hers) track and run a sole Titan X. If I got the money I will invest in a Titan X as well......thus having all the flexibility I need.

An other option is to render in pieces en composite the scene in PS (or Gimp)........I use Blender and compositing (in Blender) can sure save the day on a complicated project.

Greets, Skolar
Reply
:icon3ep:
3EP Featured By Owner Edited Oct 14, 2015  Hobbyist Digital Artist
I did some GPU & CPU testing and I alo think multiple cards may be overkill.
Now do I get rid of the GTX 960 or one of the two 780 ti's. I honestly thought Vram would play a massive part in speeding up the rendering process but it appears it doesn't.
Reply
:iconayiano:
Ayiano Featured By Owner Sep 14, 2015  Hobbyist Digital Artist
First, let me say your iRay tutorials have been VERY useful! Once I figured out all the iRay settings, I haven't had any problems getting models set up.

Until now.

For some reason, on one particular model, I cannot apply the "!Iray Uber Base," and consequently unable to convert it to iRay shaders. I have tried the method above and selecting a surface individually. Reinstalled the model files, new scenes, etc. No luck. I'm wondering if there is something special about the model itself.

Have you come across this problem?
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Sep 14, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
I never have.  What is it?
Reply
:iconayiano:
Ayiano Featured By Owner Sep 14, 2015  Hobbyist Digital Artist
I'll send you a note with the link of the model.
Reply
:iconzededd:
zededd Featured By Owner Sep 8, 2015  Hobbyist Digital Artist
I bear no shame in saying that I understood far too little of this... but I'm going to be re-reading it a few times!
This is the simplest guide I've found so far to the whole process and I'll probably be confident enough to break something by over-adjusting a slider in no time haha!

I miss the ten-second render-times I had (optimised) with 3Delight, but the results from Iray are so promising!

Thanks for posting this
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Sep 8, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
Very welcome :)
Reply
:iconnoblegaming:
NobleGaming Featured By Owner Sep 6, 2015  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Hi, I'm new to DAZ, and I seem to be having an issue with rendering. I tried doing a simple scene with a default genesis 3 model, rendered at quad HD. I turned convergence to 100, and upped render quality to 2. Despite this, the render never finishes (usually stops by 60 percent), leaving a bunch of pixels/artifacts all over the scene. Here: i.imgur.com/vBY8Dky.jpg

I'm really confused. It happened when I tried the regular default resolution, and it happened when I tried regular 1080p. Is there any chance you could help find my problem? Thanks! :)
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Sep 7, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
1. Don't turn render quality above 1.  It doubles time at 2, triples it at 3, etc.  If you want it to go longer, turn up the max time and max samples instead.

2. Convergence shouldn't be above 99.9.  100 is technically impossible.  I just found this out quite recently from the devs, so I'm sorry if the tutorial is wrong on that point.

3. "Quad HD" does not refer to a value with which I'm familiar.  Did you set the SubDiv dial on G3F to 4 in the parameters?  It doesn't need to be more than 1 if you're not dialing in HD morphs (and you would know, because you had to enter the dial that says "Victoria 7 HD" or the like), and very few HD morphs need it higher than 2 unless the render is an extreme closeup on face, hand, etc.

4.  Check your max render time value (it is 7200 seconds, or two hours, by default) and set it higher.  If it's quitting at 60% it's probably because it ran out of time before it hit your max samples.
Reply
:iconminus269:
minus269 Featured By Owner May 1, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Quad HD is a reference to image size and resolution; if it's a "mode" in DAZ Studio, it must be a rendering size default setting  Quad HD is 2560x1440; Ultra Quad HD is 3440x1440.
Reply
:iconformatela:
formatela Featured By Owner Aug 31, 2015
Thanks - I'm just starting out wth IRAY and this will be a big help
Reply
:iconbecarra:
Becarra Featured By Owner Aug 23, 2015  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Thanks for this, it will help greatly :D :Glomp:
Reply
:iconjwlovell:
jwlovell Featured By Owner Jul 24, 2015   Filmographer
I'll be really curious about how this stacks up compared to Reality 4.1. I wonder how tough material conversion will be.
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Jul 24, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
Well, it's got to be done, but for the most part DAZ's free presets (in your Shader Presets/Iray, I think) are great, and some architecture stuff does all right without any conversion.  You do want to change all the metal, water and glass to DAZ's shaders.  The main exception is skin, which takes some work, which is why we've just had quite a successful product release for Beautiful Skin Iray.
Reply
:iconjwlovell:
jwlovell Featured By Owner Jul 20, 2015   Filmographer
Very helpful to refer back to as always. I don't suppose you could suggest a few render settings in iRay that I could try that would take better advantage of the 12GB of ram that my Titan X has? :) Optix Prime Acceleration? Texture Compression? 
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Jul 20, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
OptiX should always be checked!  It really speeds things up.

Now, texture compression is a good one to turn up to larger sizes with a great card like that, because the less compression, the better large textures will look.  If you're noticing weird moire patterns or artifacts on your architecture in particular it's usually because of this.  Crank it up to 4096 and 8192 and see if you get better-looking stonework.

In general having more VRAM to play with just gives you more freedom to experiment with things that normally suck up more of it, like scenes with bigger textures, more things in them, more reflective and transmissive objects (water, mirrors, etc.), and things like the Bloom filter that can really help finish a scene without postwork but tend to cost more systemically.
Reply
:iconjwlovell:
jwlovell Featured By Owner Jul 23, 2015   Filmographer
I overclocked my Titan X +200/+400 and my scene file with Admiral Jacks and Security Squad at 4K took:

Total Rendering Time: 1 hours 33 minutes 38.82 seconds

With no overclock:

Total Rendering Time: 1 hours 38 minutes 41.22 seconds

With no overclock but cranking up the texture compression as you suggested:

Total Rendering Time: 1 hours 39 minutes 57.22 seconds

Very odd. I had CPU checked along with my Titan X. Do you think that got in the way?

Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Jul 23, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
I don't have a Titan X, but try it.  You do have OptiX checked, right?

Having five textured characters in a fully enclosed set is enough to explain that render time even on a Titan, unless you went out of your way to put small textures on the guys in the suits.  Was the set fully enclosed, or was the front wall off?
Reply
:iconjwlovell:
jwlovell Featured By Owner Jul 24, 2015   Filmographer
Yes, OptiX is checked.

It was the fully enclosed Stonemason set. When I created the suited figures, I took an M4 model made it invisible and put the Coalition armor over it. Then I uber iray based it all, and then replaced each armor individual textures with the surface selector tool and then expanded that selection so that I could select all of the items and apply the various iRay materials, like shiny metal, car paint, etc. That figure was duplicated to make the 'squad'. 

The Admiral was made a while back. I think he has all the proper iRay friendly adjustments to his shaders, etc.

I put some primitives in a handful of locations that have the iRay 'real light' shader settings applied to them, and the 4 point light set.

Would it help to remove all the set components that are not in the camera view? I have an 8 core OC intel CPU running at 3.9GHz; I figured it would still help having the CPU checked.

I like using HDR setups, I just don't know how to get them to work in interiors. Is there a way to do a DAZ render of the scene without iRay to create an HDR map for iRay? :)
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Jul 24, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
Yes, removing off-camera set bits will help if it "opens" the scene's geometry.

I wish there was, but as far as I know Studio can't render to .hdr.  Generally when I render with an HDR in an interior it's because the set isn't enclosed and I want proper reflections etc.  If you can't find an environment map that looks right, you can always put a big plane behind the camera with a picture on it - then your set is still "open" but you can get correct reflection on objects.
Reply
:iconjwlovell:
jwlovell Featured By Owner Jul 24, 2015   Filmographer
I hid all the scene elements that were not on camera. I put the texture  settings back to default -

This is the result:

Finished Rendering
Total Rendering Time: 59 minutes 38.73 seconds

Improvement! :)
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Jul 24, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
39 minutes faster, eh?  Well, that's not bad.
Reply
:iconphantom-pixel:
phantom-pixel Featured By Owner Jul 8, 2015
Hi SickleYield.  Just wanted to send you a big Thank You for your very helpful Iray tutorials!  I'm now getting some very good test renders after adjusting the settings.
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Jul 8, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
You are very welcome! :)
Reply
:iconjamare:
JaMaRe Featured By Owner Jul 4, 2015  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Hi. It is rendering assistance Iray in DAZ Studio to stop, save and later resume rendering?
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Jul 5, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
I don't know how to do that yet, unfortunately.  Sorry!
Reply
:iconfelina-faerlaingal:
Felina-Faerlaingal Featured By Owner Jul 1, 2015
thank you for this I looked everywhere for how to convert shaders!
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Jul 1, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
You're welcome. :)
Reply
:iconamoretterose:
AmoretteRose Featured By Owner Jun 30, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
You have no idea how disheartened I am to find out (the hard way first, only to be confirmed with reading this), that it requires a NVIDIA card. 
-sobs in corner-
At least my renders end up with a cute grain to it that looks almost intentional?
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Jun 30, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
It doesn't /require/ an Nvidia card.  It requires an Nvidia card to go fast.

You can get rid of the grain in any case, though, if you're willing to let it render longer - turn your convergence up to 100% in the Progressive Rendering settings.
Reply
:iconamoretterose:
AmoretteRose Featured By Owner Jun 30, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
Oh. Well that's slightly better to know, haha. Thanks for taking the time to respond. ^^ 
And a certain thanks for creating the journal in general. 
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Jul 1, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
NP!
Reply
:iconniceshoez:
Niceshoez Featured By Owner Edited Jun 29, 2015  Professional General Artist
Thanks for the informative tutorials Sickleyield (and for the cool items on Daz and Renderosity!). Have you done anything with V4 in Iray and if you have, how to make her skin look like a G2F skin in Iray? Thanks!
Reply
:iconsickleyield:
SickleYield Featured By Owner Jun 30, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
I have not, sorry!
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